The Beginnings study (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00616395) is an ongoing prospective, longitudinal study assessing growth, whole body composition, dietary intake, psychological development, and brain function of children age 2 months to 6 years who were either fed breast milk, milk-based formula, or soy-based formula during the first year of life. We have successfully recruited all participants (200 infants per group, N=600) from the Central Arkansas region. As of January 2015, 227 children (~75/group) have completed the study, and the active participants are 4 years of age or older. The retention rate for this 6-year study is currently 67%. The study will be completed in 2017
Thus far, several reports have demonstrated differences between breast-fed and formula-fed infants as anticipated. However, very few differences have been identified between cow’s milk formula fed infants and soy protein based infant formulas.
Pivik RT, Andres A, Tennal K, Gu Y, Cleves MA, Badger TM. Infant diet, gender and the development of vagal tone stability during the first two years of life. International Journal of Psychophysiology 2015 Mar 4. [Epub ahead of print]
Andres A, Hull HR, Shankar K, Casey PH, Cleves MA, Badger TM. Longitudinal Body Composition of Children born to Normal Weight, Overweight, and Obese Mothers. Obesity In Press
Andres A, Moore MB, Linam LE, Casey PH, Cleves MA, Badger TM. Compared to feeding infants breast milk or cow’s milk formula, soy formula feeding does not affect subsequent reproductive organ size at 5 years of age. The Journal of Nutrition In Press.
Pivik RT, Andres A, Tennal K, Gu Y, Armbya N, Cleves MA, Badger TM. Infant diet, gender and the normative development of vagal tone and heart period during the first two years of life. International Journal of Psychophysiology. 2013 90(30):311-320.
Andres A, Casey PH, Bellando JB, Cleves MA and Badger TM. Effects of fat mass on motor development during the first two years of life. Infant Child and Adolescent Nutrition.2013 5(4):248-254
Andres A, Casey PH, Cleves MA and Badger TM. Body fat and bone mineral content of infants fed breast-milk, cow’s-milk formula or soy formula during the first year of life. J Pediatr. 2013 163(1):49-54
Andres A, Cleves MA, Bellando JB, Pivik RT, Casey PH and Badger TM. Developmental status of one year old infants fed breast-milk, cow’s milk formula or soy formula. Pediatrics. 2012 129(6):1134-1140.
Pivik RT, Andres A, Badger TM. Effects of diet on early stage cortical perception and discrimination of syllables differing in voice-onset time: A longitudinal ERP study in 3 and 6 month old infants. Brain Lang. 2012; 120(1):27-41
Pivik RT, Andres A, Badger TM. Diet and gender influences on processing and discrimination of speech sounds in 3 and 6 month-old infants: A developmental ERP study. Dev Sci. 2011; 14(4):700-12.
Gilchrist JM, Moore MB, Andres A, Estroff JA, Badger TM Ultrasonographic Patterns of Reproductive Organs in Infants Fed Soy Formula: Comparisons to Infants Fed Breast Milk and Milk Formula. J Pediatr. 2010; 156(2):215-20.
Jing, H., Gilchrist, J.M., Badger, T.M., Pivik, R.T. A longitudinal study of differences in electroencephalographic activity among breastfed, milk formula-fed, and soy formula-fed infants during the first year of life. Early Human Development 86: 119-125, 2010.
Li, J., Dykman, R.A., Jing, H., Gilchrist, J.M., Badger, T.M., Pivik, R.T. Cortical responses to speech sounds in 3 and 6 month old infants fed breast milk, milk formula or soy formula. Developmental Neuropsychology, 35:762-784, 2010.
Badger, T.M., Gilchrist, J.M., Pivik, R.T., Andres, A., Shankar, K., Chen, J.R., Ronis, M.J. The health implications of soy infant formula. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 89:1668S-1672S, 2009.
Pivik, R.T., Dykman, R.A., Jing, H., Gilchrist, J. M., Badger, T.M. Early infant diet and the omega 3 fatty acid DHA: effects on resting cardiovascular activity and behavioral development during the first half-year of life. Developmental Neuropsychology 34: 139-158, 2009.
Jing, H., Pivik, R.T., Gilchrist, J.M., Badger, T.M. No difference indicated in EEG power spectral analysis in 3 and 6 months old infants fed soy- or milk-based formula. Maternal and Child Nutrition, 4: 136-145, 2008.
Pivik, R.T., Dykman, R.A., Jing, H., Gilchrist, J. M., Badger, T.M. The influence of infant diet on early developmental changes in processing human voice speech stimuli: ERP variations in breast and milk formula-fed infants at three and six months after birth. Developmental Neuropsychology, 31: 281-338, 2007.
Jing, H., Pivik, R.T., Dykman, R.A., Gilchrist, J.M., Badger, T.M. Effects of Breast Milk and Milk Formula Diets on Synthesized Speech Sound-induced Event-related Potentials in Three and Six Month Old Infants. Developmental Neuropsychology, 31: 349-362, 2007.